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Glossary

Alluvium: sediment deposited by flowing water

Argillite: a metamorphic rock, intermediate between shale and slate, that does not possess true slaty cleavage

Bedrock: the solid rock that underlies loose material, such as soil, sand, clay, or gravel

Blowcount: the number of blows that it takes a 140 lb hammer dropped 30 inches to drive a standard sampler a specific distance through soil. The blowcount is counted for at least three 6 inch increments and the sum of the second and third increment is the N Value in blows per foot.

Caissons (belled caissons): a deep foundation constructed by filling an hole in the soil with concrete. A belled caisson is larger at the bottom of the foundation.

Conglomerate: a rock consisting of pebbles and gravel embedded in cement

Drumlin: an elongated hill or ridge of glacial drift

Fault: a crack in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth's crust

Flood plain: a plain bordering a river and subject to flooding

Fold: a bend in a stratum of rock

Footings: (spread footings also see pressure-injected footings) a shallow foundation, often an enlarged base of a column or wall

Fracture: a crack or fault in the rock

Igneous rock: rock formed by the solidification of molten magma

Mat foundation: a shallow foundation usually made of a slab of concrete

Orthophotos: an orthophoto is an orthographic photo is projected onto an orthogonal plane to preserve the true scale of the objects in the aerial photo

Piles: a deep foundation usually made of a long, slender member that is driven into the soil (untreated wood piles or concrete-filled steel pipe piles; friction piles or end-bearing piles)

Pressure: injected footings a special type of footing where the concrete is pressurized inplace.

Sedimentary rock: rock formed from consolidated clay sediments

Stratigraphy: the study of rock strata, especially the distribution, deposition, and age of sedimentary rocks

Till: glacial drift composed of an unconsolidated, heterogeneous mixture of clay, sand, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders

Topography: the relief (surface) features of an area

Volcanic rock: extrusive igneous rock solidified near or on the surface of the Earth