Alluvium: sediment deposited by flowing water
Argillite: a metamorphic rock, intermediate between shale and slate, that does not possess true slaty cleavage
Bedrock: the solid rock that underlies loose material, such as soil, sand, clay, or gravel
Blowcount: the number of blows that it takes a 140 lb hammer dropped 30 inches to drive a standard sampler a specific distance through soil. The blowcount is counted for at least three 6 inch increments and the sum of the second and third increment is the N Value in blows per foot.
Caissons (belled caissons): a deep foundation constructed by filling an hole in the soil with concrete. A belled caisson is larger at the bottom of the foundation.
Conglomerate: a rock consisting of pebbles and gravel embedded in cement
Drumlin: an elongated hill or ridge of glacial drift
Fault: a crack in the continuity of a rock formation caused by a shifting or dislodging of the earth's crust
Flood plain: a plain bordering a river and subject to flooding
Fold: a bend in a stratum of rock
Footings: (spread footings also see pressure-injected footings) a shallow foundation, often an enlarged base of a column or wall
Fracture: a crack or fault in the rock
Igneous rock: rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
Mat foundation: a shallow foundation usually made of a slab of concrete
Orthophotos: an orthophoto is an orthographic photo is projected onto an orthogonal plane to preserve the true scale of the objects in the aerial photo
Piles: a deep foundation usually made of a long, slender member that is driven into the soil (untreated wood piles or concrete-filled steel pipe piles; friction piles or end-bearing piles)
Pressure: injected footings a special type of footing where the concrete is pressurized inplace.
Sedimentary rock: rock formed from consolidated clay sediments
Stratigraphy: the study of rock strata, especially the distribution, deposition, and age of sedimentary rocks
Till: glacial drift composed of an unconsolidated, heterogeneous mixture of clay, sand, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders
Topography: the relief (surface) features of an area
Volcanic rock: extrusive igneous rock solidified near or on the surface of the Earth